Friday, 30 January 2015


The prostate is a doughnut- shaped gland with two lobes located at the bottom of the bladder, about halfway between  the  retum  and the base of the penis. It encircles the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder out through the penis. This walnut-sized gland produces most of the fluid in semen.
The three most common prostate problems are :  infection(prostatitis), prostate enlargement( benign prostatic hypertrophy)  and prostate cancer.
Infection and enlargement do not lead to cancer.
There are two types of prostate infection: acute and chronic.
Acute infection: This comes on suddenly and has the following symptoms:
·         Fever and chills
·         Pain during urination and ejaculation.
·         Strong and frequent urge to urinate while passing out only small amounts of urine.
·         Lower back and abdominal pain.
·         Occasional blood in the urine.
Prostate infections usually respond well to home treatment and antibiotics. If the infection recurs, long term antibiotics treatment may be needed. However, sometimes, a man may have painful urinary symptoms without infection ( a condition called prostatodynia).This is often related to stress and anxiety.

·         Increase your fluid intake to as much as 8 to 12 glasses per day until you are urinating more often than usual. Extra fluids help flush the urinary  tract clean.
·         Avoid alcohol and caffeine. Caffeine can cause a strong and frequent urge to urinate.
·         Keep stress under control. Stress is closely associated with painful urinary symptoms.
·         Drink as much water as you can tolerate.
·         Eliminate all alcohol and caffeine from your diet.
·         Hot baths help soothe pain and reduce stress.
·         Pain killers may help relieve painful urinary symptoms.
Prostate Enlargement (Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy)
As men age, the prostate may enlarge. This seems to be a natural process and is not really a disease. However, as the glands get bigger, it tends to squeeze the urethra and cause urinary problems such as  :
·         Difficulty getting urine started and completely stopped.
·         Urge to urinate frequently, or being awakened by the need to urinate.
·         Painful urination.
·         Decreased force of the urine stream.
·         Incomplete bladder emptying.
An enlarged prostate gland is not a serious problem unless urination becomes extremely difficult or causes bladder infections or kidney damage. Some difficulties in getting urine started and completely stopped are common and not necessarily a sign of prostate problems.
Surgery is not usually necessary for an enlarged prostate. Although surgery used to be a common treatment but research now shows that most cases of prostate enlargement do not get worse with time as previously thought. Many men find that their symptoms are stable and some even clear up on their own. In these cases, the best treatment may be no treatment at all. Drugs are available that may help improve symptoms in many men.
·         Since the prostate produces sperm, it is believed that regular ejaculations will help prevent an enlarged prostate.
·         Avoid decongestants which can make urinary problems worse.
·         Cut down on beverages, especially alcohol and caffeine before bedtime to prevent frequent urination at night.
·         Don’t postpone urinating, and take plenty of time. Try sitting on the toilet instead of standing.
·         If starting urination is a problem, wash your penis once a day to prevent infection.
This is the most common cancer as well as the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men .It is usually a small and slow – growing cancer. When detected early, before it spreads to other organs, the cancer may be curable. Risk increases with age and in most cases in men over 65. Since it is more common in older men, it usually does not shorten life. However, when it is large, advanced, or appears at a younger age, it can be very serious.
There are no specific symptoms associated with prostate cancer. Most men have no symptoms at all. In few cases, it can cause urinary symptoms very similar to those of prostate enlargement. In advanced cases, other symptoms such as  pain , may be caused by spread of the cancer to other organs such as the bone.
Prostate cancer sometimes runs in families, is more common in African-American men, and tends to be more common in men who eat a high fat diet.
·         Maintaining a low fat diet is the only way to reduce the risk of prostate cancer.

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